There could be a couple things causing this. This generally indicates a problem with the Windows Installer package, rather than the RingCentral software. Here's a thread and Microsoft site you can refer to for more details. It might be as simple as running the microsoft tool or re-installing the Windows installer.
If you can install older versions of RingCentral Desktop, but not this new version then there might be an incompatibility. Try the above links and if you have problems, try rolling it back to an older version of RC Desktop and see if it installs correctly.